Any Christmas tree species, especially non-adapted seed sources or exotic species
- Cold temperatures, desiccation, or formation of ice crystals within cells
- Appears as damage to needles, bark, and bud tissues
- Reddish-brown needles (when only needles are damaged)
- Death of buds or shoots (in severe cases)
- Symptoms may not be evident until warmer conditions later in spring.
- Injured plants cannot obtain water from frozen soil or move water through frozen tissues.
- South to southwest side of the tree or on tissue above snow cover
- Carefully monitor sources adapted to extremely cold areas. They may experience winter injury or frost damage as they begin growth too soon in mild winters.
- Learn which locations and/or seed sources/species are more prone than others.